Motherless DNA Paternity Testing
It is not always necessary to obtain a DNA sample from the biological mother for accurate paternity determination. Paternity can be established in cases where the mother is not available or willing to be tested. By increasing the number of genetic systems analyzed, motherless testing can provide the same accurate results as traditional paternity testing. However, when the mother is available for testing, her sample should be included in the analysis. The mother's DNA profile can be informative in the analysis of unexpected results. The mother's participation is especially helpful in cases where a single non-matching genetic system is observed between the alleged father and the child. A single non-matching genetic variation in a paternity test is often the result of a mutation (a random change in the DNA which occurs in the formation of the sperm used for conception).